Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study investigators publish three new studies with implications for blood pressure measurement and control of diabetes mellitus.
University of Maine investigators in the Laboratory of Epidemiology, Cardiovascular Disease, Aging and Neuropsychology, Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering (GSBSE), published three new studies on blood pressure and diabetes. The laboratory employs data from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS), a 35-year study of relations between cardiovascular disease and cognitive function (https://umaine.edu/psychology/faculty/merrill-f-elias/msls-description/).
1. Torres RV, Elias, MF, Crichton GE, Dore G, Davey A, Systolic orthostatic hypotension is related to lowered cognitive function: findings from the Maine-Syracuse Study. Journal of Clinical Hypertension. 2017; doi: 10.111/jch.13095.
In some individuals, standing causes a shift in blood volume that can lead to postural hypertension (abnormal rise in blood pressure) or postural hypotension (abnormal fall in blood pressure) when the body’s control mechanisms (autoregulation) are not functioning properly. Both conditions have been associated with poor health outcomes, including reduced cognitive function. However, few studies have used more than one or two cognitive tests, have employed community-dwelling individuals and have blinded the participants and the investigators to the orthostatic testing procedure during data collection. Led by Rachael Torres (University of Delaware), the MSLS study team examined relations between postural hypertension, postural hypotension and cognitive function for six major cognitive domains with adjustment for demographics and cardiovascular risk factors.
In a sample of 961 community-dwelling individuals, orthostatic hypertension was not related to any of the cognitive measures. However, participants who exhibited postural hypotension due to an abnormal reduction in systolic blood pressure had lower Global composite, Verbal Memory and Scanning and Tracking domain scores compared with those who had normal systolic blood pressure change. From a practical standpoint, orthostatic hypotension is not always symptomatic and can go undetected in the absence of proper blood pressure assessment. The American Heart Association recommends assessment of recumbent followed by standing blood pressure, although it is common for assessment to be restricted to sitting blood pressure values. Considering the poor health outcomes associated with orthostatic hypotension, it is important that this practice is changed.
2. Dore GA, Elias MF, Crichton GE, Robbins MA. Age modifies the relation between intra-individual measurement to measurement variation in blood pressure and cognitive functioning: the Maine-Syracuse Study. Journal of Hypertension. 2017; doi: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000001510.
In many studies, intra-individual variation in BP at a single occasion or over time has been a stronger predictor of lowered cognitive functioning than chronically elevated blood pressure. But few, if any, studies have examined the important role of age in the adverse impact of higher variability in blood pressure on cognitive functioning. Led by Gregory Dore (National Institute on Aging), MSLS investigators examined the role of age in the adverse influence of higher variability in blood pressure on cognitive functioning in 980 men and women (mean age=62 years, SD= 12.8). This community-based sample was free of dementia, acute stroke and serious kidney disease. Intra-individual blood pressure variability at a single measurement occasion was a stronger predictor of lowered cognitive ability than chronically elevated blood pressure. Systolic blood pressure variability was associated with lower levels of performance in the domains of Verbal Memory, Visual-Spatial Memory and Organization, Scanning and Tracking and Abstract Reasoning with statistical adjustment for demographics and cardiovascular risk factors. However, associations between variability in systolic blood pressure and lowered cognitive test performance increased in magnitude with advancing age. Persons over 60 years of age were clearly more vulnerable to lowered cognitive performance in relation to higher blood pressure variability than adult participants less than 60 years of age. In order to recognize variability in blood pressure, office visits should include more than the standard one to two blood pressure measurements. The team has advance arguments for multiple blood pressure assessments at each office visit (at least 5) in previous editorials in Hypertension and the American Journal of Hypertension.
3. Elias MF, Crichton GE, Dearborn PJ, Robbins MA, Abhayaratna WP. Associations between type 2 diabetes mellitus and arterial stiffness: a prospective analysis based on the Maine-Syracuse Study. Pulse. 2017;5:88-98.
The MSLS study team and other investigators have reported that lowering of cognitive performance in persons free from dementia and acute stroke history is observed in the presence of diabetes mellitus. Led by Merrill (Pete) Elias (University of Maine), this investigation was designed to see if diabetes recognized (diagnosed) 5 years earlier in adult life is associated with increased arterial stiffness at follow-up. Pulse wave velocity is the gold standard, non-invasive method of measuring stiffness in the arteries. Results of this investigation indicated that all treated but uncontrolled Type II diabetic individuals (n= 52) had three-fold greater risk for increased arterial stiffness than those with no diabetes (n=456). Further, participants with uncontrolled diabetes over a 4- to 5-year period (n=34) had nine-fold greater risk than non-diabetic participants. This was true despite control for demographic variables, cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular events such as stroke and heart attack. Early recognition and treatment of diabetes is important for a healthy heart and healthy brain. Further studies are underway to see if arterial stiffness is a mediator (intermediate variable) in the relation between diabetes and lower cognitive performance.
Professors Merrill F. Elias and Michael A. Robbins are at the University of Maine, Department of Psychology and GSBSE. Walter P Abhayaratna is a professor of Cardiovascular Medicine at the University of Australia. Georgina E. Crichton is at the University of South Australia. Rachel V. Torres and Adam Davey are at the University of Delaware. Gregory A. Dore is a postdoctoral fellow at the National Institute on Aging, Baltimore. Rachael Torres and Gregory Dore both received degrees in psychology from the University of Maine; Rachel Torres received a BA in 2015 and Dore a PhD in 2013. Peter Dearborn is a PhD candidate in psychology at the University of Maine and a GSBSE student affiliate. MSLS data collection was supported by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and the National Institute on Aging (NIH) and manuscript preparation was supported by various national grants awarded to co-investigators.
GSBSE Faculty Member Alan Rosenwasser Presents at National Meeting
Alan Rosenwasser, Ph.D., GSBSE faculty member and psychology professor at the University of Maine, co-organized a symposium entitled “Investigating the Bidirectional Relationship Between Alcohol and Circadian Clocks”. Dr. Rosenwasser presented this symposium at the annual meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism in Denver, CO this past June.
Additionally, Dr. Rosenwasser gave a talk at the annual meeting entitled, “Chronobiology of Alcohol: Behavioral Studies.”
More Information: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/acer.13389/full
GSBSE Students, Faculty, and Staff Win Awards at Annual Meeting
Students, Faculty, and Staff won awards for best talks, poster presentations, and service to the university, at the 2017 GSBSE annual meeting held at the University of Maine on September 8th and 9th.
The winners for 2017 were:
Service Award – Student
Service Award – Faculty
Congratulations to all of the winners!
GSBSE Faculty Member Lucy Liaw Awarded 11 Million Dollar NIH COBRE Grant
Lucy Liaw, Ph.D., GSBSE faculty member and professor at Maine Medical Center Research Institute (MMCRI) received a 11 million dollar COBRE grant from the National Health Institute (NIH) to establish a multidisciplinary research center focused on human metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes.
The grant will also fund 4 junior investigators for 4 years, including GSBSE assistant professors Katie Motyl, Aaron Brown, and Michaela Reagan.
GSBSE Faculty Member Catherine Kaczorowski Awarded 5 Million Dollar NIH Grant
Catherine Kaczorowski, Ph.D., assistant professor at Jackson Laboratory (JAX) received over 5 million dollars from the National Health Institute (NIH) to study the effects of genetic factors that provide cognitive resilience in people with a family history of Alzheimer’s disease. This research could lead to new treatments for this deadly disease.
Grant source: National Institute on Aging: Systems genetics analysis of resilience to Alzheimer’s disease, grant number 1R01AG057914-01
GSBSE Faculty Member Aric Rogers Awarded NIH Grant to Study Aging
Aric Rogers, Ph.D., GSBSE faculty member and assistant professor at MDI Biological Laboratory (MDIBL), received an R21 grant from the National Health Institute (National Institute on Aging) to study the effects of aging. The project will investigate the genetic mechanisms underlying increased cellular maintenance and longevity under dietary restriction.
In technical terms, this project will explore the role of alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated decay (AS-NMD) in controlling gene expression changes important for the benefits of dietary restriction.
University of Maine Awarded NSF Grant to Purchase LightSheet Microscope
The University of Maine was awarded a NSF MRI to acquire a Leica TCS SP8 Digital LightSheet microscope. The LightSheet microscope is superior for imaging living organisms because the low light illumination and high-speed image acquisition facilitate long-term live imaging. LightSheet microscopy also illuminates specimens from both sides which allows visualization and rendering of larger samples. This Leica TCS SP8 also includes a White Light Laser with a range of 470-670nm at 1nm increments and allows for 8 excitation wavelengths to be used simultaneously.
This microscope will be used to study neuromusculoskeletal development and disease, kidney development and disease, mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions in vivo, and adipose tissue innervation. The PIs included in this grant are Clarissa Henry, Rob Wheeler, Kristy Townsend, Leif Oxburgh, and Andre Khalil.
GSBSE Flex Squad Raises Over $1,000 To Fight Muscular Dystrophy
The GSBSE Flex Squad raised over $1,000 dollars at the annual Muscular Dystrophy Association (MDA) muscle walk on September 16th in Bangor, ME to help fight Muscular Dystrophy. This was the 2nd year the GSBSE Flex Squad participated in a MDA muscle walk.
The GSBSE Flex Squad is always looking for more members! Learn more here:
GSBSE Faculty Member Sam Hess Publishes Microscopy Paper
Sam Hess, Ph.D., GSBSE faculty member and associate professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy, has recently published an original research paper in the peer reviewed Biophysical Journal. The paper examines the role probe photophysics in localization-based superresolution microscopy.
Francesca Pennacchietti, Travis J. Gould, and Samuel T. Hess. “The Role of Probe Photophysics in Localization-Based Superresolution Microscopy”. Biophysical Journal, in press (2017).
GSBSE Faculty Member Michaela Reagan Publishes Two Papers on Bone Marrow Research
The Reagan lab at Maine Medical Center Research Institute (MMCRI) recently published a peer-reviewed paper in the Journal of Endocrinology. The article examines how metformin and a high fat diet affect skeletal development. This paper was also highlighted in Nature Reviews:
Additionally, the Reagan lab published a second paper in the peer-reviewed Journal of Blood that studies how understanding the function of bone specific proteins could lead to new treatments for the bone marrow disease, multiple myeloma.
Sheila Bornstein, Michele Moschetta, Yawara Kawano, Antonio Sacco, Daisy Huynh, Daniel Brooks, Salomon Manier, Heather Fairfield, Carolyne Falank, Aldo M Roccaro, Kenichi Nagano, Roland Baron, Mary Bouxein, Calvin Vary, Irene M Ghobrial, Clifford J Rosen Michaela R Reagan (2017) Metformin Affects Cortical Bone Mass and Marrow Adiposity in Diet-Induced Obesity in Male Mice. Endocrinology, en.2017-00299, https://doi.org/10.1210/en.2017-00299
McDonald M, Reagan MR, Youlten S, Mohanty S, Seckinger A, Terry RL, Pettitt JA, Simic M, Cheng T, Morse A, Le L, Abi-Hanna D, Kramer I, Falank C, Fairfield H, Ghobrial IM, Hall A, Baldock PA, Little D, Bassett J, Williams G, Kneissel M, Vanderkerken K, Oyajobi B, Hose D, Phan T, Croucher P. Inhibiting the osteocyte-specific protein sclerostin increases bone mass and fracture resistance in multiple myeloma. 2017 Blood.