Marie J. Hayes


Ph.D. in Experimental Psychology, Postdoctoral in Neuropharmacology

Research Interests

The focus of my current work is on building our longitudinal sleep research and cognitive status in human clinical samples affected by neurological and brain injury: prodromal Alzheimer’s disease in aging and high risk infants with CNS injury. We have identified neurogenetic variants associated with Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome from opioid prenatal exposure. We have identified differential severity related to COMT and OPRM1 SNPs. Our multidisciplinary laboratory uses neurophysiological, behavioral and actigraphic recordings for sleep studies to examine neurobehavioral functioning in the high risk human neonate. Based on animal model findings demonstrating disruption of cholinergic neurotransmission with prenatal exposure to opioid compounds such as methadone, we have been testing early event-related potentials, electrophysiological correlates of prefrontal development of attention and recognition memory. Overnight memory consolidation and sleep fragmentation in aging, TBI and models of sleep in space.

Our research area has investigated the hypothesis that the pattern and rhythmicity of sleep-related spontaneous movements and respiratory coupling functions as a primitive arousal system is protective for brain hypoxia during sleep in relation to sleep disorders, Alzheimer’s disease and in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. High risk, clinical samples (e.g. neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer’s, TBI), SIDS-risk, premature infants with apnea and dysmature infants, e.g. prenatally exposed to opiates, alcohol, tobacco, have all been found to have reductions in the robustness of this system. Based on this research, an SBIR Phase I platform and patent based device has been developed with Prof. Ali Abedi (Computer and Electrical Engineering) ( This work is in testing with prodromal Alzheimer’s during overnight memory and sleep studies with aging patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

The pattern and rhythmicity of sleep-related spontaneous movements functions as a primitive arousal system that is protective for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. High risk for SIDS samples such as premature infants with apnea and dysmature infants, e.g. prenatally exposed to opiates, alcohol, tobacco, are found to have reductions in the robustness of this system. Infant and maternal saliva is collected to examine genetic methylation patterns in the mu opiate receptor and related to prenatal exposure and postnatal withdrawal severity, and relation to reward systems.


  • Heller, NA, Logan, BA; Morrison, DG, Paul, JA, Brown, MS and Hayes, MJ.  (in press). Neurobehavioral Effects of Prenatal Methadone Exposure and NAS With or Without Pharmacological Treatment. Developmental Psychobiology.
  • Wachman, E.M., M. J. Hayes, et al.  (2017). Association of maternal and infant variants in PNOC and COMT genes with neonatal abstinence syndrome severity. The American Journal on Addictions 26.1 (2017): 42-49.
  • Brown, M. S., M. J. Hayes, and L. M. Thornton. (2015). Methadone versus morphine for treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome: a prospective randomized clinical trial.” Journal of Perinatology 35: 278-283. doi:10.1038/jp.2014.194
  • Hayes, M. J., and Mark S. Brown.(2014)  Legalization of medical marijuana and incidence of opioid mortality. JAMA internal medicine 174.10: 1673-1674. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.2716
  • Wachman, E. M., Hayes, M.J., Lester, B. M., Terrin, N., Brown, M. S., Nielsen, D.A., & Davis, J.M. (2014). Epigenetic variation in the Mu-Opioid Receptor gene in Infants with Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. The Journal of Pediatrics.165 (3): 472-478. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.05.040
  • Paul, J.A., Logan, B.A., Heller, N.A., Krishnan, R., Morrison, D.A., Pritham, U.A., Tisher, P., Brown, M.S. & Hayes, M.J. (2014). Auditory event-related potentials in neonates and young infants prenatally exposed to methadone. Developmental Psychobiology, 56(5), 1119-1128. Doi:10.1002/dev.21160
  • Wachman, E., Hayes, M.J., Brown, M.S., Paul, J., Harvey-Wilkes K., Terrin,  N., Huggins G., Aranda J., and Davis, J. (2013). Association of OPRM1 and COMT Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms with Hospital Length of Hospital Stay and Treatment of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome.  Journal of American Medical Association, 309(17), 1821-1827.doi:10.1001/jama.2013.3411
  • Logan, B.A., Brown, M.S. and Hayes, M.J. (2013). Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: Treatment and pediatric outcomes. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynecology, 56, 186-192. doi: 10.1097/GRF.0b013e31827feea4
  • Hayes, M.J. & M.S. Brown (2012). Epidemic of prescription opiate abuse and neonatal    abstinence. Journal of American Medical Association, 307, 1974-1975. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.4526.
  • Pritham, U. A., Paul, J. A. and Hayes, M. J. (2012), Opioid dependency in pregnancy and length of stay for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. JOGNN, 41: 180–190. doi: 10.1111/j.1552-6909.2011.01330.x
  • Schwaner, F.; Mougharbel, E.; Abedi, A., Hayes, M. J. (2012). Self-calibrated wireless   sleep sensing system for brain injury diagnostics, Wireless Sensor Systems (WSS 2012), IET Conference, 18-19 June 2012. doi: 10.1049/cp.2012.0586
  • Falkner, T., Abedi, A., Hayes, M.J., Paul, J.A. (2010). Improving the signal to noise ratio of event-related EEG signals in high risk newborns. Proceedings of IEEE Queens Biennial Symposium on Communications (QBSC), Kingston, ON, May 2010, pp. 28-31. doi:10.1109/BSC.2010.5473008.
  • Proceedings of IEEE Queens Biennial Symposium on Communications (QBSC), Kingston, ON, May 2010, pp. 28-31. doi:10.1109/BSC.2010.5473008.
  • Matano, B.A., Hayes, M.J., Brown, M., Tisher, P., Krishnan R. and Paul, J.A. (2009). Maine’s high risk infants and maternal health and wellbeing. Maine Policy Review: Special Issue on Early Childcare,18, 60-67.
  • Troese, M., Fukumizu, M., Sallinen, B.J., Gilles, A.A., Wellman, J.D., Paul, J.A., Brown, E.R., and Hayes, M.J. (2008). Sleep fragmentation and evidence for sleep debt in alcohol-exposed infants. Early Human Development, 84, 577-585. doi:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2008.02.001.
  •  Hayes, M.J., Akilesh, M.R., Fukumizu, M. Gilles, A.A., Sallinen, B. A., Troese, M. and Paul, J.A. (2007). Apneic preterms and methylxanthines: Arousal deficits, sleep fragmentation and suppressed spontaneous movements. Journal of Perinatology, 27, 782-789. doi:10.1038/
  • Sallinen, B.J., Gilles, A.A. and Hayes, M.J. (2007). Psychobiological and cultural factors in the development of postpartum depression. In A. Rosenfeld (Ed.), New Research in Postpartum Depression (pp. 3-27).
  • New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers. Giganti F., Hayes, M.J., Cioni, G. and Salzarulo, P. (2007). Yawning frequency and distribution in preterm and near term infants assessed throughout 24-h recordings. Infant & Child Development, 30, 641-647.
  • Hayes, M.J., Fukumizu, M., Troese, M., Sallinen, B.J. and Gilles, A.A. (2007). Social experiences in infancy and early childhood co-sleeping. Infant & Child Development, 16, 403-416.
  • Hayes, M.J., and Fukumizu, M. (2006). The human neonate. In N. J. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Human Development (pp. 902-903). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
  • Fukumizu, M., Kaga, M., Kohyama, J. & Hayes, M.J. (2005). Sleep-related nighttime crying (“yonaki”) in Japan. Pediatrics. 115, 217-224
  • Hayes, M.J., Brown, E., Hofmaster, P., Davare, A., Parker, K. G., & Raczek, J. A. (2002). Prenatal alcohol intake in a rural, Caucasian clinic. Family Medicine, 34(2), 120-125.
  • Symanski, M.E., Hayes, M.J., & Akilesh, M.K. (2002). Patterns of premature newborns’ sleep-wake states before and after nursing interventions on the night shift. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecological Neonatal Nursing, 31, 305-313.
  • Giganti, F., Hayes, M. J., Akilesh, M. R., & Salzarulo, P. (2002). Yawning and behavioral states in preterm infants. Developmental Psychobiology, 41, 289-296.
  • Hayes, M. J. (2002). Methodological issues in the study of arousal and awakening in infants. Advances in Consciousness Research, Vol. 38. Salzarulo, P. & Ficca, G. (Eds.), Awakening and Sleep-Wake Cycle across Development, pp. 23-45.
  • Hayes, M.J., Parker, K. G., Sallinen, B., & Davare, A. (2001). Bedsharing, temperament and disturbance in early childhood. Sleep, 24, 657-662.
  • Hayes, M.J., Roberts, S., & Davare, A.A. (2000). Transactional conflict between psychobiology and culture in the etiology of postpartum depression, Medical Hypothesis, 54, 7-17.
  • Hayes, M.J. (1999). A review of “The lifespan development of individuals: Behavioral, neurobiological, and psychosocial perspectives by D. Magnusson (Ed.).” Cambridge University Press, 1996. Human Ethology Bulletin, 14(1), 20-22.
  • Hayes, M. J., & Mitchell, D. (1998). Spontaneous movements during sleep: Temporal organization and changes with age. Developmental Psychobiology, 32,13-21.
  • Hayes, M. J. (1998). Review of “Experimental Psychology, Methods of Research” by F. J. McGuigan. Prentice Hall, 1997. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 19, 103-104.
  • Hayes, M.J., Smith, B.A., Herrick, S.E., Roberts, S. M., & Swanson, E. (1997). Motoric responses to sucrose differ in postmature and term infants. Physiology & Behavior, 61, 101-106.
  • Hayes, M.J., & Roberts, S.M., and Stowe, R. (1996). Early childhood co-sleeping: Parent-child and parent-infant night-time interactions. Infant Mental Health Journal, 17(4), 348-357.
  • Rosenwasser, A.M., & Hayes, M.J. (1995). Neonatal desipramine treatments alters free-running circadian drinking rhythms in rats. Psychopharmacology, 115, 237-244.
  • Hayes, M.J., Plante, L., Fielding, B.A., Kumar, S.P., & Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M. (1994). Functional analysis of spontaneous movements in preterm infants. Developmental Psychobiology, 27, 271-287.
  • Hayes, M.J., Kumar, S.P., Plante, L., & Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M. (1993). Spontaneous motility in premature infants: Features of behavioral activity and rhythmic organization. Developmental Psychobiology, 26, 279-291.
  • Block, M.L., Volpe, L.C., & Hayes, M.J. (1981). Saliva as a chemical cue in the ontogeny of social behavior. Science, 211, 1062-1064.
  • Miller, L.H., Kastin, A.J., Hayes, M.J., Sterste, A., Garcia, J., & Coy, D.H. (1981). Inverse relationship between onset and duration of EEG effects of six peripherally administered peptides. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, 15, 845-848.